Prior to the removal of the
Muscogee Confederacy from their Southeastern homelands in the 1820’s and 30’s,
the Alabama and Quassarte people each had a
distinct identity as a Tribal
Town (or Tribe) of the
Confederacy. The Confederacy consisted
of more than 44 of these “Towns”
scattered throughout the Southeastern woodlands. Due to the logistics (or locations) of their
towns which were in near proximity to one another in what is now known as the
State of Alabama, they shared many similar cultural characteristics such as
certain aspects of their language, religious practices and social/familial
With the advancement of European
settlers into the region, many members of these two groups, in an attempt to
avoid contact with the “invaders”, migrated Southwest into Louisiana and Texas in
the 1790’s and early 1800’s where they remain today (Coushatta Tribe of
Louisiana & Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas). Those members who did not leave formed an
alliance and became the Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town. Pre-removal tribal government was traditional
and its leaders were the ceremonial leaders.
This body participated in the old
Muscogee Nation Confederacy government and were subsequently included in the
Removal Act of 1830. The group settled
into Indian Territory (I.T.) in what is now Hughes, Okfuskee, McIntosh and a
portion of Seminole Counties of Oklahoma. Following the Dawes Act of 1888 and the
consequent individual Allotment Act, the old Muscogee Confederacy and Creek
Nation constitutional government was disbanded.
Elections were no longer held and the President of the United States appointed a Chief for
the Creeks every four years. The
ceremonial government, however, continued through the Alabama Ceremonial
Grounds near Wetumka, OK..
Congress passed the 1936 Oklahoma
Indian Welfare Act which contained provisions for Indian Tribes to reestablish
their legal identities through federal recognition by the Secretary of the
Department of Interior. In addition
lands were allocated to be placed in trust for those Tribes. Visionary members of the Tribal Town
saw the opportunity, organized themselves and adopted a constitutional form of
government. The Department of Interior
approved the Constitution in April of 1939 and the Tribal Town
was given federal recognition in the form of government that stands today. As a component of the original Creek
Confederacy, AQTT’s members enjoy dual citizenship as Muscogee (Creek) Tribal
members as well.
Due partially to the
International conflicts and World War II as well as complacency by tribal
members, there was a lull in the activity of the Tribal Town during the 1950’s,
60’s and into the 70’s. Because of new
opportunities under the Indian Self Determination Act, the Tribal Town
renewed its efforts to be a viable and self sufficient government for its
Today the government stands as a beacon with a clear
direction of forward progress into the 21st century. The Tribal Town
has a certified enrollment of 350 members.
The government operates several federally contracted and grant programs
and has acquired more lands and facilities than ever before. The Tribe owns enterprises and generates
substantial revenues for itself.
Economic Development in several forms are being pursued which will
assure the long term growth needed for its members and future generations.
The Alabama Quassarte Tribal Flag